2110682 Embedded and Real-Time Systems

Department of Computer Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University

Course duration    : Jan-April 2022
Lecturer                : Prabhas Chongstitvatana, Prof.
                            office Eng build 4, Floor 18, room 13
                            email: prabhas at chula dot ac dot th
Lecture                : Sunday 13.00-16.00 online

The content of the course is a mixed between hardware and software.  Embedded systems are computer systems with special requirement on constraints such as low power, high integration, real-time. On the hardware side, it includes embedded processors and low level programming, logic design, integrated circuits.  On the software side, it includes Operating systems scheduling and real-time constraints.  Here are the list of topics:
Introduction to embedded and real-time systems
Assembly level programming
Memory, Peripherals and Microprocessor interface
Operating systems and task scheduling
Real-time systems and their requirements
Internet of Things

How we learn

We learn by doing both hardware and software.  The activities include embedded system model construction, some programming, and hands-on session. The assignments will be given out periodically throughout the term. A small project will be given around midterm. Students must present the results of their projects.  At the second half of the semester, a real hardware will be presented.  Students are assigned to design and implement a small embedded system.  The project will be presented in the class. The final exam is "open book" and has an element of system design plus some "pseudo" programming.


  16 Jan 2022   The class starts. 
  13 Mar 2022   Midterm project demo


Introduction    Embedded Processors 
Embedded Systems Design
IOT board (platform for interrupt programming)   demo-rz.txt
example of using IoT board (in Rz):  stopwatch
programming with interrupt   counting events
Assembly language S2 version 1: 32-bit processor  
example of writing assembly language:   find max

Rz language and its compiler
logic design  Basic Logic  
Operating systems and task scheduling  basic OS concepts
Multitask-OS (MOS)  (in assembly)  mos2.txt  (in Rz)  mos-rz.txt
lecture from Matt Welsh, Harvard,   semaphores.pdf
semaphore:  demo from William Stallings, U. of Queensland
implementing semaphores      example  reader-writer mos-rz2.txt
Cooperative Processes
Cooperative Multitask OS (CMOS)
RISC-V  instruction set
    datapath    control unit

RISC-V assembly language programming
Project discussion
Project presentation
Embedded systems practice (Arduino Board)
Actual hardware:  Arduino experiment
peripherals and interface  
    peripherals  (counter, timer, PWM, step motors, LED display, LCD, UART, USB)
    LCD display controller HD44780
    digital/analog conversion  (ADC, DAC, MCP4922  code experiment)
I2C bus    RTC experiments  DS1307  (polling) (interrupt)
memory,   memory and interrupt i/o   memory system design
real-time systems RTOS   real-time scheduling
Embedded Systems Communication 
Internet of Things: Everything as a service
final exam
final project presentation


...      assignment is in MCV


1) Introduction to Embedded systems: types of embedded systems. https://youtu.be/FCNBOCF4Myo
2) Embedded Systems: constraints, design considerations.   https://youtu.be/IBQWSlTKvmM
3) Real-time considerations, design abstraction, hardware vs software.  https://youtu.be/U6Hv92ujSUs
4) Embedded processors, FPGA, IoT board, demo stopwatch.  https://youtu.be/xtmkvzBAqrc
5) Multitask operating system: OS concept  https://youtu.be/1ViLKdoQ_tI
6) Multitask operation system: Multitask OS  https://youtu.be/xfF2vMC5x-0
7) Assembly language (S2)    https://youtu.be/A2IBYWVNLTU
8) MOS demonstration     https://youtu.be/qJhvgT5Y3yY
9) Cooperative operating system  <coming soon>
10) RISC-V Processor instruction execution  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iGoyB_0qXYE
11) RISC-V Control unit  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X17kvp8s2P0
12) RISC-V assembly language programming https://youtu.be/nh3xYrSxn3w
13) Compiling C to RISC-V assembly language  https://youtu.be/AsDMXXKgvpU

16) Peripherals part 1/4: system on chips, counter and timers  https://youtu.be/zNv3vxFRyeo
17) Peripherals part 2/4: example Reaction timer, watchdogs  https://youtu.be/e5xiqw7pFMI
18) Peripherals part 3/4: UART, LED display  https://youtu.be/yYlNRgmMV2M
19) Peripherals part 4/4: motor controls, LCD controller  https://youtu.be/GTmUMa8VGtE
20) Digital/Analog converter part 1/3: general theory  https://youtu.be/krx1w6NHFWM
21) Digital/Analog converter part 2/3: experiment  https://youtu.be/S5x0DqlxK7E
22) Digital/Analog converter part 3/3: demonstration  https://youtu.be/VmAOpFbgKhA
23) I2C bus  https://youtu.be/H6yizZikGEI
24) RTC experiment part 1/2: polling mode  https://youtu.be/F1G6IIumyG8
25) RTC experiment part 2/2: interrupt mode  https://youtu.be/Q0pQgPp_RjQ

14) Real-time scheduling  part 1/2: scheduling, earliest deadline first  https://youtu.be/YcQ32yjaYBg
15) Real-time scheduling part 2/2: scheduling examples  https://youtu.be/jggQHbj14LM

Recommended Textbooks

1. Philip Koopman, Better Embedded System Software, Drumnadrochit Press, 2010, ISBN-10: 0-9844490-0-0.
2. Ball S, Embedded Microprocessor Systems: Real World Design 2nd edition, Newnes 2000
3. Vahid F, Givargis T, Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, Wiley 2002
4. Kopetz H, Real-Time Systems: Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications, Kluwer 1997

Additional Materials

Transistor level simulation of an antique CPU.  6502 is used in the iconic Apple II machine.
Computer Organization and Design: The hardware/software interface (RISC-V edition), D. Patterson, J. Hennessy, Morgan Kaufman, 2018.  link to Amazon 
RISC-V Instruction Set Manual v.2.2  2017

Course Assessment

Assignments            10%
Mid project             30%
Final project           30%
Final exam              30%


IoT board:  Rz compiler, S21 assembler, simulator (with MOS and input):  iot-rz-19.zip 
s21 tools :    assembler and simulator  s21-3.zip
rz3.6.1 compiler with s21 assembler and simulator  rz361-2.zip
MOS in Rz  mos-rz.txt 
MOS with semaphore   mos-rz2.txt
LogicWork5    tutorial
Arduino 1.0.5     boards.txt (configuration file)   ET-SERVO  ET-LCDHC595  (project files)
Venus, RISC-V online interpreter
Compiler Explorer, RISC-V compiler on the web (select "rv32gc gcc")


Slides and presentations are kindly permitted by Setha Pan-gnam, Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Krek Piromsopa

last update 27 March 2022